Posts by Klaas

    (..) after an hour or maybe more, the wings dry to their hard form. (...) This procedure is not variable! If the wings are not inflated, they dry too.
    (...) I breed butterflies and Moth since 50 years and never ever a butterfly was able to spread the wings after failed directly after hatching.

    I agree that once the adult has started to inflate its wings, and it fails, there is no chance that the wings can be inflated later on.
    However, not all adults try to inflate their wings directly after emergence. Adults (in some species?) Can wait many hours. Archon apollinus need a suitable spot to bask in the sun, and Lemonia philopalus regularly wait from the morning until dusk before they start and the resulting wings are perfect.
    So the theory of you and Dennis about procedures and molecular processes might seem plausible, but the whole thing is more complicated. Your theory also doesn't explain why the wings don't stiffen inside the pupa, as there can be air between the wing and the pupal skin for many days before emergence.


    Regards, Klaas

    That's kind of hard to believe, but maybe in your case, the wings never fully dried? I mean how on earth would they be able to dry up completely and then still inflate?If that was the case you would have material for some publications...


    Greetings Dennis

    When butterflies/moths emerge from the pupa, the wings are usually not 'wet', so why would they 'dry up'?


    Completely developed adults can stay inside the pupa for many days, for example in Lemonidae. They wait for the right moment to emerge simultaneously. How do you explain that the wings don't dry up inside the pupa?


    As far as I know, the wings get stiff only after they have been fully or partially inflated, or in very old/dead specimens.

    Thank you Rudi. So far 2 breeders informed me that I can be sure that there was a pairing, otherwise the female would never have laid all eggs in the first night.
    During my handpairing attempt, the male didn't grab the female at all, there was no copula.
    From my experience unmated females can start laying if they are close to dying, but this was not the case: the female was still strong the next day and it was able to fly fast.


    Regards, Klaas

    The small larval nest that I collected, contained 65 larvae. An accurate counting was not possible before the last instar. In the last instar a few larvae escaped and 3 died. All other caterpillars made cocoons and I assume they pupated successfully.
    Each day I kept the caterpillars in the fridge in a closed box from 20:00 until 15:00 the next day. The bottom of the box was covered with toilet paper. In the afternoon I stored the box at room temperature, I added fresh twigs of Salix alba x babylonica, I took off the lid, and to prevent the larvae from escaping I put the box in a cage. When the caterpillars stopped feeding, it took up to 4 days until they started pupating.


    It is important to keep in mind that a wild collected nest can contain parasitoids. When I collected the nest with L2 larvae, I thought the larvae were too young to be infected already. However, at the time the larvae were moulting to L5, I suddenly saw many parasitic wasps crawling out of the nest. I was just in time to kill them. When I opened the nest, I discovered the old egg-batch in the center, and around it there were small wasp cocoons. These cocoons were probably already there when I collected the nest. It is likely that in the wild, the 2nd generation of parasitic wasps completely kill whole larval nests.

    Yesterday afternoon my only m/f pair of Neoris huttoni emerged almost simultaneously. The adults were very large and they seemed healthy. At dusk the female was flying around so much that I tried to handpair it with the male. After rougly 10 minutes without success I released the adults back into the flight cage. At 10:30 pm I saw that the female was calling in the cage outside. This morning I discovered that the female laid all eggs, the abdomen is completely empty. Is it likely that the pair mated? Or is it normal for a female of Neoris hutton to lay all eggs anyway during the first night?

    So far, the cooling method is working very well. The 4 larvae that I collected in L5, all pupated. The larvae that I collected in L2/3, are now moulting to L5. All larvae seem healthy and not a single larva has died.

    This week I collected some larvae of Eriogaster arbusculae (L2/3, L5). According to literature on the internet, the larvae are very difficult to rear. A previous breeding of E. arbusculae failed. I was wondering if anyone could advice me under which conditions the larvae can be reared successfully? Many thanks in advance!


    Regards, Klaas

    Like Rainer and Sasha, I recommend you show your finger to a doctor (general practitioner, dermatologist etc.). Reading your story, an allergic reaction seems an unlikely cause to me, and if it is a serious condition (for example panaritium), appropriate treatment shouldn't be delayed. All the best.

    Saturnia naessigi, Saturnia galeropa, Saturnia shadulla, Saturnia schencki, Saturnia eckweileri, Saturnia clasnaumanni, Saturnia bergmanni...
    The whole splitting up of Saturnia (Neoris) huttoni into all these so-called 'species' confuses me. They all look the same to me (BOLD Systems: Taxonomy Browser - Saturnia {genus}), especially keeping in mind that there is much individual variation within populations. Does anybody know how the authors justify the description of all these new species?

    In October 2014, on a beach in Tunisia, I saw many specimens of Vanessa cardui arriving from the sea, flying rapidly against the wind. For me there's no doubt that these were migrants from Europe.

    Hello everyone,


    Can anyone tell me how I can determine if butterfly pupae are alive?


    This summer I discovered that Papilio pupae that sunk in water, were alive. Pupae that floated above the water, were all infected with parasites.


    Today I received a number of Papilio sp. pupae that have movable abdomens and they are translucent like live pupae. None of them contain developing adults. In water, half of them sink and the others float just beneath the surface. Is this a reliable sign that they are dead?


    Kind regards,
    Klaas